Britons of the Iron Age also used to polish it and form it into ornaments. To take off the shell or coat of. [87] Depending on technology, above-ground retorting uses between one and five barrels of water per barrel of produced shale-oil. ", "Shell's ingenious approach to oil shale is pretty slick", "New directions for shale oil:path to a secure new oil supply well into this century: on the example of Australia", "Co-liquefaction of kukersite oil shale and pine wood in supercritical water", "Kinetics of co-pyrolysis of Tarfaya (Morocco) oil shale with high-density polyethylene", American Association for the Advancement of Science, "Unconventional Oil and Gas Production. Most conversion technologies involve heating shale in the absence of oxygen to a temperature at which kerogen decomposes (pyrolyses) into gas, condensable oil, and a solid residue. Meaning of shale oil in English: shale oil. Combustion and thermal processing generate waste material. Oil obtained from bituminous shale. [1] Deposits of oil shale occur around the world, including major deposits in the United States. English Collins Dictionary - English Definition & Thesaurus. "[30][33][34], Modern industrial mining of oil shale began in 1837 in Autun, France, followed by exploitation in Scotland, Germany, and several other countries.[35][36]. Common applications for paraffin wax include lubrication, electrical insulation, … Translate texts with the world's best machine translation technology, developed by the creators of Linguee. The Polish rapporteur, Adam Gierek, has … Pronunciation /ˈSHāl ˌoil/ /ˈʃeɪl ˌɔɪl/ See synonyms for shale oil. [13], Oil shale differs from bitumen-impregnated rocks (oil sands and petroleum reservoir rocks), humic coals and carbonaceous shale. [38] The European oil-shale industry expanded immediately before World War I due to limited access to conventional petroleum resources and to the mass production of automobiles and trucks, which accompanied an increase in gasoline consumption. [8] Oil shale serves for oil production in Estonia, Brazil, and China; for power generation in Estonia, China, and Germany; for cement production in Estonia, Germany, and China; and for use in chemical industries in China, Estonia, and Russia. To take off the shell or coat of. Create an account and sign in to access this FREE content, With more seats made available, it should be a, The board is expected to meet today to consider a formal, He paid tribute to her in a very emotional. Translator. Between 1946 and 1952, a marine type of Dictyonema shale served for uranium production in Sillamäe, Estonia, and between 1950 and 1989 Sweden used alum shale for the same purposes. Modified entries © 2019 Shale oil definition, petroleum distilled from oil shale. A report by EASAC to the Committee on Industry, Research and Energy of the European Parliament, "Importance of Future Oil Shale Industry Plans for Estonia", "Oil Shale Fired Power Plant - Enefit.jo", "Jordan moves ahead with $2.1 bln oil shale power plant", Strategic Significance of America's Oil Shale Resource. Information about shale oil in the AudioEnglish.org dictionary, synonyms and antonyms. General composition of oil shales constitutes inorganic matrix, bitumens, and kerogen. Translations in context of "shale" in English-Spanish from Reverso Context: shale gas, shale oil, oil shale Register Login Text size Help & about English العربية Deutsch English Español Français עברית Italiano 日本語 Nederlands Polski Português Română Русский Türkçe fantastic atmosphere [42][69] However, appropriate refining processes equivalent to hydrocracking can transform shale oil into a lighter-range hydrocarbon (gasoline). noun. [4][5] At the same time, oil-shale mining and processing raise a number of environmental concerns, such as land use, waste disposal, water use, waste-water management, greenhouse-gas emissions and air pollution. Since extraction technologies develop continuously, planners can only estimate the amount of recoverable kerogen. In either case, the chemical process of pyrolysis converts the kerogen in the oil shale to shale oil (synthetic crude oil) and oil shale gas. Download our English Dictionary apps - available for both iOS and Android. [8][24][49] As of 2020, Jordan was finishing construction of a 554 MW oil shale power plant [50][51][52]. According to the World Energy Outlook 2010, the EROEI of ex-situ processing is typically 4 to 5 while of in-situ processing it may be even as low as 2. O'Loughlin. Suggest or Ask for translation/definition. in order to force open existing cracks (= narrow openings) and take out oil or gas. ... No results found for this meaning. [22], As source rocks for most conventional oil reservoirs, oil shale deposits are found in all world oil provinces, although most of them are too deep to be exploited economically. shale play in English translation and definition "shale play", Dictionary English-English online. oil shale n a fine-grained shale containing oil, which can be extracted by heating [3][11], A 2016 estimate set the total world resources of oil shale equivalent to yield of 6.05 trillion barrels (962 billion cubic metres) of shale oil, with the largest resource deposits in the United States accounting more than 80% of the world total resource. [23] As with all oil and gas resources, analysts distinguish between oil shale resources and oil shale reserves. [3] Oil shale gas has served as a substitute for natural gas, but as of 2009[update], producing oil shale gas as a natural-gas substitute remained economically infeasible. Meaning: Shale from which oil can be obtained by heating. CRC Critical Reviews in Environmental Control. Assuming an increase in output of 25 thousand barrels per day (4.0×10^3 m3/d) during each year after the start of commercial production, RAND predicts the costs would decline to $35–48 per barrel ($220–300/m3) within 12 years. While the bitumen portion of oil shales is soluble in carbon disulfide, kerogen portion is insoluble in carbon disulfide and may contain iron, vanadium, nickel, molybdenum, and uranium. Commonly detected examples include quinoline derivatives, pyridine, and various alkyl homologues of pyridine (picoline, lutidine). [95], For the scientific-technical journal, see, Organic-rich fine-grained sedimentary rock containing kerogen, Western Oil Shale Has a High Mercury Content. [24][48] Israel, Romania and Russia have in the past run power plants fired by oil shale, but have shut them down or switched to other fuel sources such as natural gas. uk / ˈʃeɪl ˌɡæs / us / ˈʃeɪl ˌɡæs /. noun. energy; fossil fuel; fracking; fuel; hydroelectric; nuclear; oil; power station; solar; … Some commentators compare the proposed American oil-shale industry to the Athabasca oil-sands industry (the latter enterprise generated over 1 million barrels (160,000 cubic metres) of oil per day in late 2007), stating that "the first-generation facility is the hardest, both technically and economically". See also: shale oil, burnt shale, oil shale, sale. These deposits have given rise to expectations of yielding at least 40 liters of shale oil per tonne of oil shale, using the Fischer Assay. Eight Gaelic words from the Collins English Dictionary. 1. [6][24], On 2 May 1982, known in some circles as "Black Sunday", Exxon canceled its US$5 billion Colony Shale Oil Project near Parachute, Colorado because of low oil-prices and increased expenses, laying off more than 2,000 workers and leaving a trail of home-foreclosures and small-business bankruptcies. [10][11] According to the petrologist Adrian C. Hutton of the University of Wollongong, oil shales are not "geological nor geochemically distinctive rock but rather 'economic' term. sedimentary rock. In order to run a profitable operation, the price of crude oil would need to remain above these levels. Many translated example sentences containing "shale oil" – Greek-English dictionary and search engine for Greek translations. However, according to the IEA most of used energy can be provided by burning the spent shale or oil-shale gas.[80]. Wordfinder. Shale Oil: oil extracted from oil shale by heating.. [62], Industry can use oil shale as a fuel for thermal power-plants, burning it (like coal) to drive steam turbines; some of these plants employ the resulting heat for district heating of homes and businesses. noun mass noun. ... into rocks, deep holes in the ground, etc. Last 100 years It is an ‘International Day’ established by the United Nations to recognize and promote the contribution made by volunteers and voluntary organizations to the wellbeing of people across the globe. Amaze your friends with your new-found knowledge! Our new online dictionaries for schools provide a safe and appropriate environment for children. Other countries, such as Egypt, have also had plans to construct power plants fired by oil shale, while Canada and Turkey plan to burn oil shale along with coal for power generation. [9][17][18] The organic components of oil shale derive from a variety of organisms, such as the remains of algae, spores, pollen, plant cuticles and corky fragments of herbaceous and woody plants, and cellular debris from other aquatic and land plants. SMART Vocabulary: related words and phrases. Well-explored deposits, potentially classifiable as reserves, include the Green River deposits in the western United States, the Tertiary deposits in Queensland, Australia, deposits in Sweden and Estonia, the El-Lajjun deposit in Jordan, and deposits in France, Germany, Brazil, China, southern Mongolia and Russia. [60], Hundreds of patents for oil shale retorting technologies exist;[61] however, only a few dozen have undergone testing. In addition to its use as a fuel, oil shale may also serve in the production of specialty carbon fibers, adsorbent carbons, carbon black, phenols, resins, glues, tanning agents, mastic, road bitumen, cement, bricks, construction and decorative blocks, soil-additives, fertilizers, rock-wool insulation, glass, and pharmaceutical products. [88] In situ processing, according to one estimate, uses about one-tenth as much water. English Arabic English – Arabic ; English Spanish English ... oil shale. [45][57] See more. [2], Humans have used oil shale as a fuel since prehistoric times, since it generally burns without any processing. [3], Oil shale gains attention as a potential abundant source of oil whenever the price of crude oil rises. Shale definition is - a fissile rock that is formed by the consolidation of clay, mud, or silt, has a finely stratified or laminated structure, and is composed of minerals essentially unaltered since deposition. The analysis also discusses the expectation that processing costs would drop after the establishment of the complex. [58] 19(4): 309-340. The most common methods of surface mining involve open pit mining and strip mining. By comparison with West Texas Intermediate, the benchmark standard for crude oil in the futures-contract market, the Green River shale oil sulfur content ranges from near 0% to 4.9% (in average 0.76%), where West Texas Intermediate's sulfur content has a maximum of 0.42%. [81] These include acid drainage induced by the sudden rapid exposure and subsequent oxidation of formerly buried materials, the introduction of metals including mercury[82] into surface-water and groundwater, increased erosion, sulfur-gas emissions, and air pollution caused by the production of particulates during processing, transport, and support activities. [54], According to the World Energy Council, in 2008 the total production of shale oil from oil shale was 930,000 tonnes, equal to 17,700 barrels per day (2,810 m3/d), of which China produced 375,000 tonnes, Estonia 355,000 tonnes, and Brazil 200,000 tonnes. Download Wordinn Dictionary for PC. Exact: 474. [45] However, oil shale use for production of these items remains small or only in its experimental stages. [55] In comparison, production of the conventional oil and natural gas liquids in 2008 amounted 3.95 billion tonnes or 82.1 million barrels per day (13.1×10^6 m3/d). Definition of shale oil in the AudioEnglish.org Dictionary. 1. shale - a sedimentary rock formed by the deposition of successive layers of clay. See more. bab.la - Online dictionaries, vocabulary, ... All our dictionaries are bidirectional, meaning that you can look up words in both languages at the same time. [27] Learn more. Collins English Dictionary. After achieving the milestone of 1 billion barrels (160 million cubic metres), its costs would decline further to $30–40 per barrel ($190–250/m3). Results: 474. A shell or husk; a cod or pod. shale oil synonyms, shale oil pronunciation, shale oil translation, English dictionary definition of shale oil. [67] The arsenic content, for example, becomes an issue for Green River formation oil shale. Although the Estonian and Chinese oil-shale industries continued to grow after World War II, most other countries abandoned their projects due to high processing costs and the availability of cheaper petroleum. [6][92][93], Some comets contain "massive amounts of an organic material almost identical to high grade oil shale," the equivalent of cubic kilometers of such mixed with other material;[94] for instance, corresponding hydrocarbons were detected in a probe fly-by through the tail of Comet Halley during 1986. 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