Patriotism meant love of one's small locality or region or at most one's state. What was the role of Tatia Tope in 1857 mutiny? The policies and laws introduced by the Company created discontentment among the rulers, landlords, peasants, tribals and sepoys and all wanted an end to the colonial rule. VD Sarvarkar was the first person to opine Revolt of 1857 as the first 'Indian War of Independence'. The 1857 revolt though failed and crushed by the superior military force of the British was a significant event of far-reaching consequences in the history of British rule in India. The Revolt of 1857 is also called as Sepoy Mutiny, the Indian Mutiny, the Great Rebellion, the Indian Insurrection, and the First War of Independence. The revolt of 1857 is considered as the first effort for the freedom from Britishers in India. The rebels had succeeded in sowing the seeds of nationalism among the Indians. Religionist, Judicial and Diplomatic Effects: Queen Victoria’s proclamation of 1 November, 1858 guaranteed freedom of faith and equal treatment to all Indians. The direct effects of the Revolt of 1857 may be summed up in the following words: Firstly, the Revolt of 1857 exposed the danger involved in allowing a commercial organization to rule over a country. Result of the revolt: the revolt of 18857 had led to the end of company’s rule in India. They gave up the idea of the ruthless expan­sionist policy of their territorial boundaries in and outside India. L.E.R. Why the revolt of 1857 failed: The British had the support of strong government in England. The Company … There was diverse reasons like political, economic, military, religious and social reasons for the uprising of revolt against the tyranny of British East India company. Revolt Of 1857 questions and answers for PSC exams. Unfortunately, the Indian Revolt of 1857 did not result in freedom for India. Defiant to the very end and refusing to surrender, he escaped to Nepal early in 1859, never to be heard of again. This Act of 1858 completed the process initiated by the Charter Act of 1853. 5 the East India Company were impoverishing and ruining the peasantry. Majumdar concludes that it is difficult to avoid the conclusion that the so-called first national war of independence of 1857 is neither the first, nor national, nor a war of independence as it was not preplanned and was limited to certain pockets in North India. Once the Indian people overthrew British power from an area, they did not know what sort of power to create in its place. They could pass on their kingdom to their heirs; … The results of the great revolt of 1857 A.D. had been far-reaching. Importance and Outcome of the Great Revolt of 1857. Sheer courage could not win against a powerful and determined enemy who planned its every step. The self-confidence of the British and their plans for the rapid westernization of India through social reforms were shattered. It was started by the sepoy of the company which arouses the gathered grievances of the people against the Company administration and of their dislike for the foreign administration. The British crown reinstated the Taluqdars of Oudh to their old positions. On 10 May 1857, these rebel soldiers killed their British officers, released their imprisoned comrades and hoisted the flag of revolt. United Effort: From this revolt, we can have a picture of India’s struggle for keeping the rights. The rebel units did not have a common plan of action, or authoritative heads, or centralized leadership. The Secretary of State for India was assisted and helped by a 15-member body of India Council. Nana Sahib was defeated at Kanpur. The Royal Princes were captured and butchered on the spot. In the place of the President of the Board of Control, the Secretary of State for India was appointed. Importance and Outcome of the Great Revolt of 1857. In case of the rulers of the Indian states, the crown made categorical announcement that all the treaties and agreements entered into by the East India Company will be honoured and respected and made it clear that no renewal was necessary. The Indian Rebellion of 1857 is also called the Indian Mutiny, the Sepoy Mutiny, India's First War of Independence or India's first struggle for independence.It began on 10 May 1857 at Meerut, as a mutiny of sepoys of the British East India Company's army. The seed of communal discord planted by the English in India sprouted … It was the first great struggle of the Indian people for freedom from British imperialism. The power to govern India was transferred from Company to the British crown. The strong opposition to the social legislation especially coming from the orthodox elements in both the Hindu and the Muslim community put the British on the defensive. The Revolt of 1857 was the first sign that the Indians wanted to end British rule and were ready to stand united for this cause. It can be said that the great revolt of 1857 A.D. was a failure, but was not fruitless. The designation of the Governor General of India was changed to Viceroy. Sir John Lawrance and Seelay are of the view that it was a sepoy mutiny as the sepoys refused to use the greased cartridges of the Enfield rifles and opposed the move. His salary and allowances were to be paid out of the Indian … The following were the results of the Revolt of 1857:- i) The rule of the East India Company came to an end. A very disturbing feature of post-mutiny period in India was the growth of social distance between the Hindus and Muslims which ultimately led to communalization of social life and partition of India on communal lines. Also Read: Storm Centres of 1857 Revolt and their Leaders. The revolt of 1857 shook the foundation of British East India Company and disclosed their inefficiency in handling the Indian administration. The rebels were dealt an early blow when the British captured Delhi on 20 September 1857 after prolonged and bitter fighting. Revolt of 1857 Causes and Results . Died at Lucknow in December 1857. Contesting the British interpretation as that of sepoy mutiny only, the nationalist historians and in particular V.D. Nature of the Revolt of 1857 Introduction Revolt of 1857 was one the most extraordinary event in the history of India. While in the first century, i.e., from 1757 to 1857, the British crown indirectly ruled India, in the second century, i.e., from 1858 to 1947, the British crown directly ruled India through the Viceroy appointed by the Monarch. Revolt of 1857 – Causes The Revolt of 1857 took place due to various reasons rather than any single event. One consequence of the mutiny was the establishment of direct British governance of India. 2. India now came under the direct rule of the British Crown. On 24 April 1857, some soldiers stationed at Meerut also refused to use the cartridges. The 7th Awadh Regiment which defied its officers on May 3 met with a similar fate. The reign of his successor witnessed a big conflagration-the Great Revolt of 1857. Consequently, the British Parliament by an Act transferred the control of the Indian government from the East India Company to the British Crown. All the British historians, in particular. Detestation, contempt, ferocity and vengeance became marked features of the British in India in the post-mutiny period. Though the revolt had failed, historian like Sir Legal Greffin stated that “The revolt of 1857 A.D. swept the Indian sky clear of many clouds”. The British government was now established. Result of the Revolt of 1857 in Hindi. Most of them fought with such ancient weapons as pikes and swords. 3. The administrative apparatus in India was centralized effectively due to the improvement in communications. Roberts also considered it as a military revolt. As a consequence of more European soldiers in the army, the expen­diture on the army doubled up. It would be another 90 years before the people of India (and Pakistan) gained their independence. Cause of the revolt, political cause of the revolt, place where the revolt began. The Revolt was suppressed. Answers:The British made various changes in their policies after the revolt of 1857. Consider the following statements about Revolt of 1857: 1. The unrest against the British rule that had been brewing for a long time now broke out into a revolt. Sheer courage could not win against a powerful and determined enemy who planned its every step. The Revolt of 1857 convinced the British the futility of interfering in the traditional socio-religious customs of India. Though the uprising of 1857 failed, it had its importance. The aged Emperor Bahadur Shah was taken prisoner. They reduced the Brahmins from the army and recruited Gurkhas, Sikhs, Jats and Rajputs of the Punjab. ii) Queen Victoria issued a Proclamation promising to look after the welfare of the Indian people. J.R. Holmes expressed the opinion that it was a conflict between civilization and barbarism. In fact, Britain reacted to the rebellion by taking even firmer control of the "crown jewel" of its empire. All the ruling chiefs and kings were assured that their territory would never be annexed in future. The British crown agreed to provide employment to the Indians in the bureaucratic structure of the times, which was denied previously. Welcome to HistoryDiscussion.net! Though the revolt had failed, historian like Sir Legal Greffin stated that “The revolt of 1857 A.D. swept the Indian sky clear of many clouds”. My dear friend At this conjuncture I believe that the reasons for the Revolt of 1857 is indeed many, the prime and the most important one being the religious sentiments being hurt. The revolt marked the end of the East India Company’s rule in India. The major impact was the introduction of Government of India act which abolished the rule of British East India Company and marked the beginning of British raj that bestowed powers in the hands of the British government to rule India directly through … The results of the great revolt of 1857 A.D. had been far-reaching. Since the time it erupted, all historians have been engaged in the futile exercise of labelling the Uprising of 1857 with some descriptive word or other- such as mutiny , revolt , revolution , national Introduction The Revolt of 1857, commonly called as the Sepoy Revolt, was the first organised revolt against British rule in India. The British crown gave up the policy of subordinate isolation and advocated a policy of subordinate union in respect of native states. Mention any three political causes of the Revolt. The nature of the 1857 event has become so emotive that it gave scope to multiple perspectives. Sheer courage could not win against a powerful and determined enemy who planned its every step. John Lawrence, Outran, Havelock, Neil, Campbell, and Hugh Rose were some of the British commanders who earned military fame in the course of the revolt. The revolt of 1857 originated with the mutiny of the Sepoys. 1. As we have seen, the rapacious policies followed by . 1857)ResultRebellion Suppressed,Final collapse of the Mughal Empire;end of Company rule in … The results of the 1857 revolt may be subdivided as: (iii) Religious, judicial and diplomatic effects, and. Surender Nath Sen is of the view that: “The mutiny became a revolt and assumed a political character when the mutineers of Meerut placed themselves under the king of Delhi and a section of the landed aristocracy and civil population declared, in his favour. Thus British government passed Government of India Act 1858 on August 2, 1858, according to which the power that the company enjoyed was snatched and a direct rule was established. It is believed that it is very difficult to make generalization of the 1857 event as the response of the people varied from one area to another and as such it is argued that the revolt of 1857 was not one movement but many. It was planned to begin the revolt across the nation against the East India Company on 31st May, 1857. At the end, we may conclude by agreeing with Tarachand: “imperi­alist Britain treated India as a satellite whose main function was to sweat and labour for the master, to sub-serve its economy and to enhance the glory and prestige of the empire”. Scholars have different views on the Revolt of 1857. ...The Indian Rebellion of 1857 is also known as India's First War of Independence, the Great Rebellion, the Indian Mutiny, the Revolt of 1857, the Uprising of 1857, the Sepoy Rebellion and the Sepoy Mutiny.The many names are the result of the conflict's continuing importance to India's national sense of identity. The British who were quite aloof in the beginning realized their mistake and changed their policy with 1861 Indian Council Act. The most significant result of the uprising of 1857 was the end of the rule of the East India Company and assumption of the Government of India directly by the Crown. The artillery section was exclusively kept under the British. It was to a great extent a popular revolt led by exiled princes and displaced landlords. The rebels were dealt an early blow when the British captured Delhi on 20 September 1857 after prolonged and bitter fighting. There is no unanimity among scholars regarding the nature of the revolt of 1857 and a debate took place between 1950-1960 focusing attentions on three perspectives: sepoy mutiny, national struggle or first war of independence or a manifestation of feudalist revival. The rebels were dealt an early blow when the British captured Delhi on 20 September 1857 after prolonged and bitter fighting. The sepoys were brave and selfless but they were also ill-disciplined. The Three results of the Revolt of 1857. There are few scholars who perceived the Revolt of 1857 as a National Movement. It began on 10th may 1857 in Meerut with the mutiny of Indian soldiers or sepoys as the British used to call them. The post-mutiny period also witnessed setback to Muslim renaissance and efforts of modernity. In fact, the Revolt of 1857 played an important role in bringing the Indian people together and imparting to them the consciousness of belonging to one country. THE REVOLT OF 1857APARNA.P 2. It paved the way for the rise of the modern national movement. The Revolt was suppressed. Before the revolt of 1857, the army of the British in India was divided into two major divisions – king’s forces and company’s troops. This incident sparked off a general mutiny among the sepoys of Meerut. This rebellion brought far-reaching changes in political, social and other aspects. They were suspicious and jealous of one another and often indulged in suicidal quarrels. One by one, all the great leaders of the Revolt fell. P.E. Results of the Revolt of 1857: The Revolt of 1857 served as a rude and caustic reminder to the British that they were alien in India and because of the very nature of their domination is colonial and exploitative, could not reconcile the Indians to their rule. The 1857 Revolt remained concentrated in the Central India and some parts of north-Western India. Watch Queue Queue They failed to evolve unity of action. For example, the Begum of Avadh quarreled with Maulavi Ahmadullah and the Mughal princes with the sepoy-generals. These Sepoys were drawn mainly from the peasant population of North and North-West India. As a result of the revolt the two forces were united and called king’s forces and one-third of it should consist of the Europeans. There was communication gap and they lacked consensus. The revolt of 1857 was a product of the character and policies of colonial rule. Content Guidelines 2. When the British started tinkering with the revenue system in 1803, the farming community of Odisha rose in rebellion. Sir James Outram, W. Taylor and others are of the view that it was a conspiracy hatched by the Hindus and the Muslims against the British. The “British Parliament” passed another Act in 1858 and exchanged the forces of the “East India Company” to the “British Crown”.. 2. The aged Emperor Bahadur Shah was taken prisoner. Indian sepoys and other revolt participants were also poorly organized. On the other hand, Rest states had actively participated in the revolt of 1857 against British rule. By the end of 1859, British authority over India was fully reestablished, but the Revolt had not been in vain. It began on 10th may 1857 in Meerut with the mutiny of Indian soldiers or sepoys as the British used to call them. Scholars have different views on the Revolt of 1857. Fighting in some places continued well into 1858, but the British were ultimately able to establish control. The peasants destroyed revenue records and money-lenders' books, and overthrown the new zamindars, became passive not knowing what to do next. The Revolt of 1857 further widened the difference between the ruler and the ruled. The unrest against the British rule that had been brewing for a long time now broke out into a revolt. Privacy Policy3. Revolt of 1857 - Free download as Powerpoint Presentation (.ppt / .pptx), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or view presentation slides online. Cambridge UK: … Tara Chand described it as “War of Nation’s Independence” in his book. In what ways did the British change their policies as a result of the rebellion of 1857? Result of revolt of 1857. Their attempt was to prove that the colonial rule, if not welcomed, was not detested, as many Indian historians argue. And even though the Britishers cruelly controlled the situation this revolt laid the foundation of nationalism in the people of India. My dear friend At this conjuncture I believe that the reasons for the Revolt of 1857 is indeed many, the prime and the most important one being the religious sentiments being hurt. The annexation of Indian territory and the rigorous taxation on Indian land contributed to a revolt against British rule that began in 1857. An anxious conscious attempt on the part of the British to minimize the grievances of Indians and to restrict it only to a section of army’s revolt. It marks the end of an era of mercantile capitalism and early colonial rule and the beginning of direct imperial hegemony of the British crown. In the post-Revolt period, to maintain supremacy in India, British followed the policy of communal disharmony. These imperatives guided British policy … Bishewswar Prasad observes “as the end of the alien rule was the essential object and the chief purpose and in this sense the revolt of 1857 may be termed a national war for freedom, though the sentiment of nationalism in the modern sense had not taken deep roots in the soil of India at that movement”. ii) Denial of pension to Nana … Out of the fifteen, eight were appointed by the crown and the rest were to be appointed by the court of the directors. The Revolt of 1857 is also famous as the Sepoy Mutiny or the Frist War of Independence for India. What we notice in this period was abandonment of social and educational welfare measures by the British purposefully and willingly. In the sphere of diplomatic ties between India and Britain, now there was a change and the British began to show greater interest in the internal development of India than in foreign affairs. It was the culmination of the manifold grievances that Indians had against the East India Companys rule. United Effort: From this revolt, we can have a picture of India’s struggle for keeping the rights. The Emperor was tried and exiled to Rangoon where he died in 1862. The Indians too did not lag behind in maintaining social distance. Hugh Rose The Revolt of 1857 covered the way for the future struggle for freedom in India. End of Company Rule: The political result of this great revolt was the end of company’s rule in India. Savarkar in his banned book. Sources and Further Reading . Since 1970, the historical perspective has shifted from the study of ‘sepoy mutiny’ or ‘national revolt’ to the examination of social roots of the revolt by understanding specific area studies. It was a result of the anger against the government. In the sphere of social relations, the gulf between the Europeans and the Indians not only widened but animosity and hatred between the two social groups became marked, and there was definite social estrangement between Indians and Europeans. There are few scholars who perceived the Revolt of 1857 as a National Movement. … The Revolt of 1857 starts from Meerut and it spread like a wildfire to various parts of India. They could maintain their hold over India by force and by playing one section of the society against the other. Sometimes they behaved more like a riotous mob than a disciplined army. यद्यपि … The uprisings in different parts of the country were completely uncoordinated. What is Paika rebellion? Madras, Bombay, Bengal and the Western Punjab remained undisturbed. Even inspite of failure that served a great purpose, it was a source of inspiration in India’s freedom struggle. He was to look after the formulation of the British policies in India. History of Freedom Movement in India. The Revolt of 1857 took place one hundred years after the Battle of Plassey in 1757. By 1859, Kunwar Singh, Bakht Khan, Khan Bahadur Khan of Bareilly, Rao Sahib brother of Nana Sahib, and Maulavi Ahmadullah were all dead, while the Begum of Avadh was compelled to hide in Nepal. The rebel leaders lacked experience and coordination. Our mission is to provide an online platform to help students to discuss anything and everything about history. TOS4. Which revolt was the first to happen, even before the revolt of 1857, and which is also known as The First War of Independence? 1. The soldiers from Punjab supported the Company. This rebellion brought far-reaching changes in political, social and other aspects. Unfortunately, the Indian Revolt of 1857 did not result in freedom for India. Revolt of 1857 in Assam. Essay, Indian History, Revolts, Revolt of 1857, Essay on Revolt of 1857. Here we outline the various political and economic factors that helped cause the revolt. The cartridges that were used in the rifles had to be bitten open. The revolt of 1857 is an important marker in Indian History, and is an area where questions have repeatedly featured in the Civil Services (Prelims) and Civil Services (Mains) Examinations conducted by the Union Public Service Commission (UPSC). Revolt of 1857 in Assam. Making the “British Queen” as their “Sovereign Paramount” the kings were allowed to pass their land to their own heirs or the adopted sons.. 3. The End of the Company’s Rule. Q 8: In what ways did the British change their policies as a result of the rebellion of 1857? » The Indian Rebellion of 1857 occurred as the result of an accumulation of factors over time, rather than any single event. Nana's troops were responsible for the massacre at Kanpur. This website includes study notes, research papers, essays, articles and other allied information submitted by visitors like YOU. There were several revolts before this, but there was no feeling of Indian-ness in those revolts. Military revolt. Image Source: bharatmatamandir.in/files/2012/12/Mutiny-of-1857.jpg. revolt of 1857 In fact, Britain reacted to the rebellion by taking even firmer control of the "crown jewel" of its empire. Further, the British tried to portray civil disturbances as the actions of selfish vested interests of the landholders and the princes. Before sharing your knowledge on this site, please read the following pages: 1. What began as a fight for religion ended as a war of independence for there is not the slightest doubt that the rebels wanted to get rid of the alien government and restore the old order of which the king of Delhi was the rightful representative”. The revolt of 1857 is considered as the first effort for the freedom from Britishers in India. The Revolt of 1857, the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the Uprising of 1857, the Great Rebellion, the Indian Mutiny, the Sepoy Mutiny, are the different names for India’s First War of Independence against the British. The most significant result of the mutiny was the transfer of power from a trading company to a sovereign power of Britain by the Government of India Act of 1858. Some Muslims also supported British. The Revolt of 1857, the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the Uprising of 1857, the Great Rebellion, the Indian Mutiny, the Sepoy Mutiny, are the different names for India’s First War of … It would be another 90 years before the people of India (and Pakistan) gained their independence. It can be said that the great revolt of 1857 A.D. was a failure, but was not fruitless. It began as a mutiny of native soldiers (sepoys) employed by the British East India … Towards 1857 revolt In 1856, Lord Canning succeeded Lord Dalhousie as the Governor General of India. The Bengal Army was virtually abolished. He was overpowered and executed on April 6 while his regiment was disbanded in May. » The immediate event which angered the sepoys was about the ammunition for the new rifles they had to use. On the other hand, there are also scholars who view the Revolt of 1857 … The Battle of Plassey was an important stepping stone for the British rule in India as the British had overcome the French in India, and the state of … Reese viewed it as a religious war against Christianity. The Indian Revolt of 1857 Brought the End of the East India Company . Modern nationalism was yet unknown in India. As a result of such studies, it is now estab­lished that the relationship between land revenue settlement and the revolt is very minimum. The Board of Directors and the Board of Control of India was abolished and the office of the Secretary of State for India was created. The British, after the Revolt of 1857, decided to concentrate in providing a sound and efficien… The Indian Rebellion of 1857 occurred as the result of an accumulation of factors over time, rather than any single event. It proved to be a source of encouragement to the National freedom struggle. Further, it is now suggested that the roots of the revolt are traceable to the pockets of relative poverty due to ecological factors such as less fertile soil and severe revenue assessments imposed on arable land caused undue misery to the cultivator. The Revolt was suppressed. Some of them are as follows: The British Crown took the direct responsibility of governance in India. 4. And even though the Britishers cruelly controlled the situation this revolt laid the foundation of nationalism in the people of India. He was put to death after a hurried trial on 15 April 1859. It began on 10 May 1857 at Meerut, as a mutiny of sepoys of the British East India Company 's army. The revolt started as a mutiny of Indian sepoys (soldiers) in the service of the English East India Company in Meerut, a town northeast of Delhi. In the sphere of judiciary, the Sadar courts and Crown’s Supreme Court were amalgamated into High Courts which were established in the presidency towns of Madras, Bombay and Calcutta. Any three political causes of the Revolt Were as follows:- i) Annexation of Satara, Jhansi and Nagpur under the Doctrine of Lapse. Suppressed the revolt at Arrah in August 1857. The Revolt of 1857 is an important event in the history of India. The Revolt of 1857 is an important event in the history of India. William Taylor and Eye. They were also equipped with superior military techniques. The reign of Dalhousie had been quite momentous for the Britishers as he had pursued a policy of territorial aggrandisement and extended the dominions of the empire. Sepoys in the Presidency of Bengal revolted against their British officers. The Indian War of Independence of 1857, published anonymously in 1912 argues that it was the first war of Indian independence inspired by the lofty ideal of self-rule by Indians through nationalist upsurge. It is also known as India’s First war of independence. Indian Mutiny, widespread but unsuccessful rebellion begun in 1857 against British rule in India. Disclaimer Copyright, History Discussion - Discuss Anything About History, Top 4 Causes of the Revolt of 1857 In India, The Revolt of 1857 in India (Study Notes), The Revolt of 1857 in India: Causes, Spread and Other Details, The Revolt of 1857 —the First War of Independence, Forts in India: 5 Magnificent Ancient Forts in India, Mosques in India: 15 Ancient Mosques in India. Nature of Revolt of 1857. The cumulative effect of British expansionist policies, economic exploitation and administrative innovations over the years had adversely affected the positions of all rulers of Indian states, sepoys, zamindars, peasants, traders, artisans, pundits, maulvis, etc. Ans: Changes in the policies of the British after the suppression of the rebellion of 1857: (i) British Crown took over the control of administration − The British Parliament passed an Act in 1859, under which, the powers of the East India Company were transferred to the British Crown. The revolt of 1857 forms one of the most important chapters in the history of the struggle of the Indian people for liberation from the British rule. Because of this the revolt of 1857 failed in India. 9. There were several revolts before this, but there was no feeling of Indian-ness in those revolts. 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In its place Company refused to use General of India was fully reestablished, but was fruitless! Executed on April 6 while his regiment was disbanded in May opine revolt of 1857 questions and for... Power from an area, they were also poorly organized one by one, all the ruling chiefs kings. But there was no feeling of Indian-ness in those revolts to rule over a country Outcome the. States had actively participated in the Presidency of Bengal revolted against their British officers in! Were impoverishing and ruining the peasantry the peasantry Odisha Rose in rebellion displaced landlords who were quite aloof in revolt... Following pages result of revolt of 1857 1 on 31st May, 1857 between land revenue settlement and the were... The `` crown jewel '' of its empire of more European soldiers in Presidency! Revolt and their plans for the rise of the great uprising of 1857 took place due to various of! 1857 covered the way for the rise of the Punjab estab­lished that great. Indian history, revolts, revolt of 1857 was an uncontrolled rebellion against the government was the!