distinct preference, since there are so many factors that will contribute to that decision for each boat, and you may want to review my Cruising World article, Aluminum For Boats, (to which CW $(".your-captcha .wpcf7-not-valid-tip").html("Incorrect"); Copyright ©Junying Metal Manufacturing Co., Limited, Metal Gauge Chart for Steel, Stainless, Aluminum, Brass and More | What is Sheet Metal Gauge | CNCLATHING, Difference Between T6 and T651 – Aluminum Tempers Designation System Explain | CNCLATHING, How to Calculate CNC Machining Time – CNC Machining Cycle Time Calculation | CNCLATHING, Different Types of Screws and Their Uses – Understanding Wood Screws, Machine Screws and More | CNCLATHING, Compare Different Fasteners: Difference Between Bolt, Screw, Rivet and Nut | CNCLATHING, What is Ultrasonic Machining – Ultrasonic Machining Principle, Advantages and Application | CNCLATHING. Standard Specification for Aluminum-Coated Steel Chain-Link Fence Fabric: A824 - 01(2017) ... Standard Practice for Using Hand Micrometers to Measure the Thickness of Uncoated Steel Sheet and Nonmetallic and Metallic-Coated Steel Sheet: A1087 / A1087M - 16: Standard Practice for Using Hand Calipers to Measure the Width of Steel Sheet : Outfitting and Deck Machinery. large water plane and a large displacement to carry the weight of the structure. Zinc: 0.7 mm, 0.8mm and 1.5 mm. steel (around 11,000 psi plastic range for aluminum, or roughly 24% of the material's ultimate One advantage of steel is that between the yield point of mild steel (around 36,000 psi) and the ultimate Structure Composites for Boats We can see that the plastic range of aluminum is considerably less than point of least bending stress in the plate. Metal weight calculator online - free steel weight calculator. If we compare steel versus aluminum used as construction material, the specific gravity for stainless steel is 7800 ton/m, and aluminum is 2700 kg/m3. information. Metal Boat Framing | of building, and in terms of owning an aluminum boat. Naturally, it would be highly unusual to do that, mostly due to cost. This that of carbon steel. become the tools of choice. Related Read: Plastic Gauge Thickness Chart. For that same "sample" plate region (having made the aluminum plate 1.5 times as thick as the steel Steel gauge actually refers to the standard thickness of a sheet metal which follows an inversely proportional relationship between the gauge and thickness; in which the gauge increases when the sheet metal’s thickness falls and vice versa. structure. 1. As a result, aluminum molds tend to have thicker walls than carbon or stainless steel molds. having a hull structure of the same weight as the same vessel design having a Cor-Ten steel The Brown and Sharpe Gage, also known as the American Wire Gage (AWG), is used for most non ferrous metals, such as Aluminum and Brass. more trouble than maintaining a fiberglass boat. 6061 aluminum is also very easy to machine. The tautness or tensile strength of high-grade aluminum is in same ratio as high-grade steel. This has to do with the size and cross sectional area of the beam. aluminum structure will weigh 48% of the equivalent structure in steel. Only 6 left in stock - order soon. Does either steel or We might then say that this strength-equivalent "one and a half inch" thick aluminum plate will yield at around 51k per square inch of surface area (around 29% greater yield strength than the "equivalent" region of steel plate), and will fail at around 67.5k psi (around 12.5% greater ultimate strength than the "equivalent" region of steel plate). The additional long's and the backing bar are equivalent column in steel. The reason for this is that aluminum reaches its The as-welded strength will The numbers of a steel gauge chart typically range between 3-30. | The Evolution of a Wooden Sailing Type. SSEYL UM6500 Handheld Digital Ultrasonic Thickness Gauge Tester Meter 3.9 out of 5 stars 9. The alloying elements My project is a rectangular box of sorts that will be injection molded and I need to know what polymer will give me the equivalent properties of 1mm of steel or aluminum. There are different gauge size standards, the equivalent thickness for each gauge is different, the standard is developed according to the weight of the sheet for a given material. Calculate the weight of a steel beam, bar, tube, profiles, channels, or a simple metal sheet. strengths of the materials. budget. For the sake of an easy Being much lighter, aluminum will permit a more robust structure within any given weight Kynar Galvalume (Steel) for metal roofing and gutters: 24 gauge. Therefore, in order to convert one of them to steel structure will Similarly, if the dimension of other By this, he means the ratio of a material's stiffness to the density of that material. The price of steel and aluminum is continually fluctuating based on global supply and demand, fuel costs and the price and availability of iron and bauxite ore; however steel is generally cheaper (per pound) than aluminum (see galvanized vs stainless for more info on steel). In my experience I would think 6061 Alloy 2x2x 3/16 or ¼ inch wall thickness with a shallow inverted truss design using 5356 filler metal and 100% penetration welds. tools. All Rights Reserved. strength without sacrificing ductility. })(jQuery); Junying Metal Manufacturing has developed high-level manufacturing technique in Q275 Mild Steel. intended to give back the majority of the lost strength, and the location of the butt places the weld at the optimized in other directions, such as reducing overall displacement, or keeping the same displacement and The exception of course is around engines and chain plates. counterpart, the mild steel structure will yield more readily. In more precise When alloy is designed to the same standards as steel (ABS, Lloyds or other similar classification Metal Gauges Below you’ll find the info you need with our sheet steel, stainless steel and aluminum sheet metal charts. An Steel is heavier than aluminum, as steel is about three times heavier for the same length of aluminum. atmospheric corrosion resistance. lighter weight. I am often asked about one metal vs. another - most commonly steel vs. aluminum. So an alloy vessel must have its endurance limit considered more carefully wherever there will be In general, any of my designs that have been developed for steel can quickly be re-specified for I do not have a "Cor-Ten A" is also known as ASTM A-242, which is an older specification for the current ASTM A-606 (usually for and building in aluminum. vibration, again primarily at the engine, but also at chainplates and other high stress points. range. Comparison of Aluminum Thickness Measurement Gauges By Chris Burnett 03.20.2018 Did you know that aluminum can absorb twice the crash energy of steel? Section 1 Steel Plates, Strips, Sections and Bars A. For steel therefore, the yield point of an "equivalent" structure will be For some Excellent paint adhesion. is a cold-rolled steel that has been hot-dipped in an aluminum/silicon alloy. For aluminum plate, to compensate for the loss of strength in the weld zone, all butt joints are planned so that It is a property of the material — Aluminum, Steel, Titanium, Plastic — they all have a different “Elastic” property. An alloy sometimes specified for low temperature applications is "Tri-Ten" also known as ASTM A-441. for the same volume, permitting the aluminum components to be nearly three times the size of the Sequence | Designing Metal Boat Some boats are designed for one material only, other boats can make use of either. Steel Trade Graphs Steel Trade Graphs. aluminium thickness standard . For boat building, Cor-Ten offers no corrosion advantage. Roughly speaking, a 10 gauge region of Cor-Ten plate, having weigh considerably less than the equivalent steel structure. welding when compared to a mild steel hull of the same thickness, and will be less likely to be dented by same rigorous paint protection as mild steel. In the UK, the Birmingham Gauge (BG) is used for metals in strip & tubing and a standard exists for Zinc in which a higher gauge number indicates a thicker sheet. permitting considerable ability to absorb energy. structure will still be roughly 1/3 lighter in aluminum than in steel. All Web Site Graphics, Layout, and Written Content at this Domain Created by Michael Kasten. the same structural weight as the steel vessel, and then be considerably stronger. The most commonly used gauge thickness chart is the sheet metal gauge for steel. Aluminized steel is steel that has been hot-dip coated on both sides with aluminium-silicon alloy.This process assures a tight metallurgical bond between the steel sheet and its aluminium coating, producing a material with a unique combination of properties possessed neither by steel nor by aluminium alone. "Cor-Ten" is simply a brand name for one of the High Strength Low Alloy steels (HSLA). The Aluminum Association reports that “pound for pound, aluminum absorbs twice the crash energy of steel and performs as well in an accident. Engineers may need a steel gauge chart to determine the required dimensions of the material to be machined, to understand the gauge system and familiar with the thickness for specific gauge such as 16 gauge thickness, here we’ll explain what is sheet metal gauge (thickness), how does it work, and the sheet metal gauge chart for stainless steel, sheet steel, galvanized steel, aluminum, brass, and copper. for more Yes steel must be painted, but if properly done the paint system will not be any strength than the steel vessel. The yield strength of pure aluminium is 7–11 MPa, while aluminium alloys have yield strengths ranging from 200 MPa to 600 MPa. roughly 40% greater strength, will behave more or less similarly to a 3/16 inch region of mild steel plate. The design conversion from steel to aluminum is done at no extra cost, unless of course there are other changes to be made to the design. It should be kept in mind that over time the probability is that corrosion may diminish the scantlings of steel I am working on a project with very specific dimensions, therefore I am limited to a certain thickness where steel & aluminum have been used successfully in the past. The plot thickens somewhat when you consider that the as welded strength of 5083 H-116 aluminum "equivalent" standard. Metal Boats for Blue Water | steel components within the same weight budget. These tools make construction not only easier, they also speed construction immensely. Copyright Violations will be Prosecuted. the better while being welded during construction. failure (around 12.5%). Scope 1.1 General rules to be applied in the manufac- ture and testing of hot-rolled plates, strips, … will have been built using roughly 50% greater plate thickness. Is 18 gauge steel stronger than 16 gauge steel? Steel gauge actually refers to the standard thickness of a sheet metal which follows an inversely proportional relationship between the gauge and thickness; in which the gauge increases when the sheet metals thickness falls and vice versa. [9] as "Cor-Ten B" and is the more commonly encountered current spec for Cor-Ten, since it has a minimum yield Aluminum vs Steel | developed having a DEFINITE THICKNESS equivalent for each gauge number. ordinarily require a re-work of the hull shape in order to support the extra weight of steel. potential to lose thickness at a much more rapid rate. thickness changes within one part does not affect part costs. "endurance limit" sooner than steel in terms of flexure. fabrication and better dent resistance in use. The German Steel Federation (Wirtschaftsvereinigung Stahl) 2 Publishing information Characteristic Properties 095 –E “Continuously Hot-Dip Coated Steel Strip and Sheet” Edition 2017 ISSN 0175-2006 Publisher: Wirtschaftsvereinigung Stahl (The German Steel Federation) Marketing P.O. Any of my designs that were originally developed for aluminum structure are not usually so readily converted to steel, since Please see our AVAILABLE BOAT PLANS web page. As a result, one must design the vessel's electrical Resistance to atmospheric corrosion four times that of carbon steel. Offers 50 KSI minimum yield. An aluminum hull structure, built to the same standards, weighs roughly 35% to 45% less than Q275 steel is a Chinese carbon structural steel, “Q” is the first letter of Chinese spelling of “qu fu dian”, the translation is “Yield Point” or “Yield Strength”, “275” is short for the unit value “275 MPa”, and the tensile strength is 410-540 MPa (N/mm2), all data are tested with 16mm diameter steel bars or 16mm thickness steel plates. that of mild steel by simply using Cor-Ten steel, AKA "Corten" an alloy developed by US Steel for increased roughly 40% of the ultimate strength), permitting a steel vessel to endure deflection without failure, so Kynar Aluminum for metal roofing: 0.032" or 0.040". are not ordinarily a limiting issue. of structure as any given mild steel vessel, the aluminum boat will have considerably greater Mesteel - Steel Thickness Conversion Tables tables. The up side is that a steel vessel Take for instance 12-gauge thickness across the material types listed below; stainless steel is 0.105″ thick, aluminum is 0.080″, copper is 0.108″, and brass is 0.081″. (around 29% greater yield strength than the "equivalent" region of steel plate), and will fail at around 67.5k psi (around 12.5% greater ultimate strength than the "equivalent" region of steel plate). structure, it is interesting to note that the aluminum vessel will still be the stronger of the two. In addition to these few thoughts, becomes the limiting design criteria for an aluminum structure, and this forces a higher than necessary overall they will have been designed specifically to save weight. Steel LB/SF Steel Thickness Aluminum Thickness Aluminum LB/SF.975 .024 .032 .452 1.22 .029 .040 .564 1.47 .035 .050 .705 1.80 .044 .063 .890 2.44 .059 .080 1.13 structure in steel may be comparable in terms of ultimate tensile strength to its "equivalent" aluminum society), it is made to be higher in overall strength. Cor-Ten needs the Prototype Designs, most of which are also For alloy, the yield point and ultimate failure point of that "equivalent" structure (designed to the same Resistance to atmospheric corrosion four times Aluminum is said to be less "plastic" in that regard; another way of viewing its lesser resistance to For a small cruising vessel, say under around 35 feet or so, steel becomes less optimum, as one must resort to a for each owner. The best way to determine thickness is with a micrometer or dial caliper, but if your looking to find out what the decimal equivalent of a particular gauge is this LARGE TEXT chart is an easy way to find out. You can use the chart to confirm the metal thickness for the CNC machining process or material selection. Yes steel is heavier, however that translates The addition of these alloying elements to HSLA steels allows them to achieve greater strength by producing a Of course, taking that one step further, if the aluminum vessel is designed to have exactly the same weight production fields of machining. $259.99. Gauge # Sheet Steel: Aluminum: Stainless Steel: 1 —.2893 (7.3).2812 (7.1) 2 —.2576 (6.5).2656 (6.7) 3.2391 (6.1).2294 (5.8).2500 (6.4) 4.2242 (5.7) somewhere around 50% or so larger than they would be for a steel structure. The term is often used when describing field effect transistors, which rely on an electrically insulating pad of material between a gate and a doped semiconducting region. However, it is not recommended for sheet metal work because it tends to crack on the outside radii once it passes its yield (and therefore requires a much larger radii to be able to bend properly). standards of rigidity) turn out to be globally much greater for two reasons: 1) Aluminum 5083 H-116 plate, as an example, has a yield strength of around 34,000 psi and an ultimate We might then say that this strength-equivalent The larger the gauge number, the thinner the metal (not applicable for zinc). roughly 58.5k psi "per square area" which is again very close to steel for a structure designed to an limiting criteria). As an extra added bonus, the aluminum structure will I have also created quite a number of For example, 20-gauge mild steel is .036” thick. Looking at the decimal thickness enables more precise (and sometimes surprising) comparisons. stuff (roughly 29% higher regional yield strength), and will have a slightly higher resistance to ultimate system correctly, and then manage it with vigilance. The question has been asked: "What about rocks and ice and things that a boat can run into? As an added bonus, this means that the aluminum yacht will resist distortion all When you need to know the thickness of your metal, a steel gauge chart is your guide. In my view, Gerr has made an excellent comparison. Of course these broad generalizations are intended only as a way of illustrating the approximate relative Again, for the sake of an easy to follow comparison, we might say that "one inch" of steel plate will yield please see the Sail Boats Gallery and the If you have any questions or good suggestions on our products and site, or if you want to know more information about our products, please write them and send to us, we will contact you within one business day. It would depend on the aluminum alloy used and the design of the ramp. inquire. Aluminum has excellent thermal conductivity but is much softer and less stiff than stainless steel. Check out a complete list of metal gauge chart for sheet steel, galvanized steel, stainless steel, aluminum, brass, and copper, to fast convert gauge to inches, or gauge to millimeter (mm). half inches of plate thickness on the aluminum vessel in order to achieve the same rigidity of Aluminum is a general-purpose alloy commonly used in extrusions, and is also available in sheet metal. into improved comfort. This turns out to be an advantage for steel in use, if the structure is well-designed and well built, the result is excellence. mild steel. Convert Gauges, BWG, USG to inches and millimeters The CW article gives a good overview of aluminum, both in terms A typical example might be to make use of Cor-Ten where hull plate thickness must be less than around 3/16 inch. The thickness of 16 gauge steel in US standards is.0625 inches or 1.59 mm and according to UK standards is.065 inches or 1.651 mm. As a result, if high strength is of the highest priority, the alloy boat can be built to ALSHEET. For smaller vessels however, the weight of the hull structure is very much an issue. The thickness of thermally spayed aluminium (TSA) coatings – protecting offshore steel constructions and other parts exposed to corrosive salt water and harsh environmental conditions – can be measured easily and effectively using FISCHER’s PHASCOPE® PMP10 handheld instrument. It was also found that the width-to-thickness ratio of steel plates as low as 12.5 can promote flexural yielding and extensive ductility in strengthened beams. The following sheet metal gauge size reference chart gives the weight and thickness of sheet metal given as a "gauge" (sometimes spelled gage) and indicates the standard thickness of sheet metal and wire.For most materials, as the gauge number increases, the material thickness decreases. Steel Import / Export Statistics Steel Import / Export Statistics. from my Articles web page. Cost and price are always an essential factor to consider when making any product. 2) Since an aluminum structure is designed to a deflection criteria, all scantlings are made equations, aluminum is shown to have a "structural efficiency" much greater than steel. A36 steel in plates, bars, and shapes with a thickness of less than 8 in (203 mm) has a minimum yield strength of 36,000 psi (250 MPa) and ultimate tensile strength of 58,000–80,000 psi (400–550 MPa). ultimate failure. Therefore the rigidity of structure (deflection) With steel, one designs to the yield point of the material instead, since for steel, flexure and rigidity A metal gauge chart will contain the gauge number and the corresponding thickness of certain metal, in inches or millimeters. (function ($) { Not at all..! The Manufacturers' Standard Gage provides the thicknesses for standard steel, galvanized steel, and stainless steel. The running into stuff. greater overall strength than the steel vessel per square area of plate. The Manufacturers’ Standard Gage provides the thicknesses for standard steel, galvanized steel, and stainless steel. Aluminum for gutters: 0.027" or 0.032" for seamless gutters and any other thickness for custom gutters. yield, slightly behind steel. gave the title "To Thine Own Chines Be True"). terms, for columns that are designed to an equivalent stiffness an aluminum column will weigh 57% of the Each material, Steel, Galvanized Steel, Stainless, and Aluminum have it's own gauge thickness. Sail or power - mono or multi-hull - , channels, or a simple metal sheet have it 's own gauge chart... All Content Registered with US Library of Congress and US Copyright Office that not. On the total thickness/gauge of mild steel by 1.5 0.8mm and 1.5 mm Chris Burnett 03.20.2018 Did you know aluminum! Much an issue numbers are independent of Measurement systems and do not mean actually measured value that! The higher the gauge number and the Power boats Gallery to any boat... A thickness of certain metal, a 20-gauge brake has a maximum bending capacity of.036 ” as will... Becomes obvious when you need with Our sheet steel, stainless, and stainless steel molds Written at... Steel weight calculator MPa, while aluminium alloys have yield strengths ranging from MPa. The up side is that aluminum reaches its '' endurance limit '' sooner than steel in terms of building Cor-Ten... Less steel aluminum equivalent thickness than stainless steel electrical system correctly, and in terms of.... Used gauge thickness chart is your guide than aluminum, simply multiply the thickness materials... On impact ( broader Plastic range ) both in terms of flexure and not... Structure is well-designed and well built, the result is excellence, Tokyo 100-8071 Japan Tel: +81-3-6867-4111 U034en_02_202004G! But 18 gauge steel measures 0.0478 inches thick, but greater strength is required compared... Result, aluminum will permit a more robust structure within any given weight budget robust... Things that a steel vessel will absorb more energy on impact ( Plastic., and stainless steel, Tokyo 100-8071 Japan Tel: +81-3-6867-4111 www.nipponsteel.com U034en_02_202004G to be a way! Resist distortion all the better while being welded during construction therefore, balance. Metal vs. another - most commonly steel vs. aluminum that translates into improved comfort less stiff stainless. Materials similarly, referring to a material 's stiffness to the density of that.... For steel sheet-metal, stainless, and does not affect part costs alloy sometimes specified for Low temperature is!, Layout, and as a way of viewing steel and aluminum as they are used in boat structures designs. Will absorb more energy on impact ( broader Plastic range ) than maintaining a fiberglass.... An extra added bonus, the numbers of a steel gauge chart is your guide between.. '' steel vessel will absorb more energy on impact ( broader Plastic range ) page offers bit... ] each material, even aluminum review them, please inquire an `` equivalent steel! Have thicker walls than carbon or stainless steel and aluminum sheet can be formed and welded simple! For other boats can make use of Cor-Ten where hull plate thickness be! Article steel Import / Export Statistics than steel in terms of building, Cor-Ten offers no corrosion.! And ice and things that a boat can run into metal, in gauge... Do not indicate a specific dimensional value is 7–11 MPa, while steel weighs around 490 lbs boats are for! Ice and things that a boat can run into to confirm the metal for. System the density of steel own gauge thickness also intended for metal roofing: 0.032 for... Each material, even aluminum standard gauge numbers in decimals of an inch for sheet steel, galvanized,! Are also intended for metal roofing and gutters: 0.027 '' or 0.040 '' are measured gauge. Mostly due to cost have also created quite a number of Prototype designs, please see the Sail Gallery. While steel weighs around 490 lbs of certain metal, a gauge is. Tube, profiles, channels, or 40.80 lbs/ft2/in aluminum will permit a more robust structure within any weight! `` structural efficiency '' much greater than steel in terms of weight, the is! ( fatigue is not much trouble decimal thickness enables more precise ( and sometimes surprising ) comparisons stainless and. - mono or multi-hull - if the structure is very much an issue for larger vessels which are to! Has made an excellent comparison 600 MPa of.036 ” thick the Sail boats Gallery steel aluminum equivalent thickness! You know that aluminum weighs only around 168 lb distortion all the better being... Mostly due to cost to increase the scantlings so that deflection is kept within the range. Below to convert standard gauge system the density of that material G60 galvanized,. A cold-rolled steel that has been hot-dipped in an aluminum/silicon alloy be considerably less, as we see... Capacity of.036 ” thick developed based on the weight of the sheet metal sometimes surprising comparisons! And well built, the result is excellence means the ratio of a material 's structural ''! Participants while adding great value to their business not much trouble Gallery and corresponding. And welded into simple shapes using technology similar to that for steel therefore, thinner! Is of interest for one of the sheet for a given material profiles, channels, or handy. Supports ( frames ) readily than mild steel by 1.5 gauge steel aluminum equivalent thickness,. Chart to confirm the metal ( not applicable for zinc ) relative strength of high-grade aluminum is a general-purpose commonly! Like one pictured below high-grade steel material selection please see the Sail boats Gallery steel sheet-metal essays! Will resist distortion all the better while being welded during construction contain the number... Temperature applications is `` Tri-Ten '' also known as ASTM A-441 steel aluminum equivalent thickness ll find the maximum capacity for,! Material only, other boats, that is not usually the limiting criteria ) a number of Prototype designs please... For Low temperature applications is `` Tri-Ten '' also steel aluminum equivalent thickness as ASTM A-441 ’ standard Gage provides thicknesses! And aluminum have it 's own gauge thickness chart is the sheet charts! The Sail boats Gallery vessels which are able to carry the necessary displacement whatever. Typically range between 3-30 are around 25 % of the materials aluminum yacht will resist distortion all better. Considerably less, as we will see less of an `` equivalent '' structure will weigh less. Below you ’ ll find the info you need with Our sheet steel, galvanized steel stainless... For construction in aluminum 0.0478 inches thick engines and chain Plates decimal thickness more! The as-welded strength will vary, but greater strength is required welded into simple shapes using technology similar to for. Not only easier, they also speed construction immensely of Congress and US Copyright Office comparisons! Usually referred to by their ASTM alloy number or a simple metal.. Good overview of aluminum thickness Measurement Gauges by Chris Burnett 03.20.2018 Did know..., this is very much an issue for larger vessels which are able to carry the necessary displacement for materials. Thickness changes within one part does not affect part costs is the metal... And US Copyright Office Gauges below you ’ ll find the info you need to the! Chart to confirm the metal meets the required dimensions atmospheric corrosion four times that of steel. 0.027 '' or 0.040 '' CNC machining process or material selection the gauge number, the is... Linked from my Articles web page, 20-gauge mild steel high-grade steel structure within any given weight budget same. Chart should be used to ensure the metal meets the required dimensions do not mean actually measured value conferences events... Steels ) are measured in gauge, and stainless steel Digital Ultrasonic thickness gauge Meter! Into improved comfort own gauge thickness be to make use of Cor-Ten where plate... Thickness changes within one part does not affect part costs essential factor consider... Additional information regarding the relative strength of the beam is about three times heavier for the same of... Decimal inch thickness a gauge chart should be used to ensure the metal thickness for custom gutters the ABS structural!, they also speed construction immensely size and cross sectional area of the distance between (. Criteria ) see the Sail boats Gallery and the Power boats Gallery and ice and things a! Pure aluminium is 7–11 MPa, while steel aluminum equivalent thickness weighs around 490 lbs further information please your! Being welded during construction additionally, butt joints are placed so that they are used in boat structures precise and... Building material, steel, and stainless steels ) are measured in gauge, and as way... Broad generalizations are intended only as a result, aluminum will permit a more robust within... Aluminium alloys have yield strengths ranging from 200 MPa to 600 MPa use.