Records (a) and (b) were obtained from one oocyte. Records were from different oocytes. Effects of serotonergic agents on neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Neuron 2003; 38: 929–939. Fluoxetine (Prozac), sertraline (Zoloft), paroxetine (Paxil) and other selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) drugs can be affected by taking supplements and can affect your ability to absorb certain vitamins and minerals. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1997; 94: 2041–2044. Additionally, fluoxetine reduced more the ACh currents in the presence of zinc: to 17% for α4β4 and to 19% for α1β1γδ nAChRs, and after washing out the fluoxetine the ACh current did not recover its zinc-potentiated value. If similar drug applications were performed in oocytes expressing muscle α1β1γδ nAChRs, the results were slightly different. Consult your healthcare professional (e.g., doctor or pharmacist) for more in formation. What should be up is down. Blockage of muscle acetylcholine receptors by the serotonin 1A receptor agonist 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin (8-OH-DPAT). The preparation of RNA and oocyte injection have been described elsewhere.10, 16 Briefly, cRNAs encoding the mouse muscle (α1, β1, γ and δ) and rat neuronal (α4 and β4) nAChR subunits were transcribed in vitro and mixtures, with equal quantities of RNA subunits, were prepared to express α1β1γδ and α4β4 combinations. Both the onset of the effects and their recovery were slower for fluoxetine than for zinc (cf. CAS  Reduced potency of zinc to interact with NMDA receptors in hippocampal tissue of suicide victims. Dr. Deans, could you write about the issue of low zinc and depression and people who have experienced a brain injury? For example, zinc is known to modulate nAChRs in a biphasic manner: potentiating and inhibiting the ACh response, depending on the subunit composition of the receptors,7 probably by interacting at two different sites on the nAChR. Fluoxetine treatment also increased cell survival, particularly in wild type mice, though it did not affect proliferation. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1996; 93: 3990–3994. Thus, zinc increased the ACh current to 182±22%, n=6 (Figure 2a, b) and fluoxetine decreased it to 45±4%, n=4 (Figure 2b, b). Pol J Pharmacol 2002; 54: 681–685. Antidepressants and vitamins are typically safe to take together. As might antidepressants, GABA receptor modulators, and other neuroprotective chemicals. It turns out that zinc plays a part in modulating the brain and body’s response to stress all along the way. In animal models of depression, and in patients with major depression, zinc favors the effects of antidepressants.32, 33 Therefore, we decided to examine further the effects of zinc and fluoxetine on nAChRs. Kroczka B, Branski P, Palucha A, Pilc A, Nowak G . Dreams have been described as dress rehearsals for real life, opportunities to gratify wishes, and a form of nocturnal therapy. Xenopus laevis oocytes were manually dissected from segments of ovary, defolliculated with collagenase41 and maintained at 16°C in Barth's solution containing (in mM): 88 NaCl, 1 KCl, 0.33 Ca(NO3)2, 0.41 CaCl2, 0.82 MgSO4, 2.4 NaHCO3, 5 HEPES (pH 7.4; NaOH), and 0.1 mg/ml gentamicin sulfate. Palma E, Maggi L, Miledi R, Eusebi F . Miledi R . Human brain fluoxetine concentrations. Pharmacokinetics of second generation antidepressants: fluoxetine. A calcium-dependent transient outward current in Xenopus laevis oocytes. ACh currents during co-application of zinc and fluoxetine on neuronal nAChRs. García-Colunga J, Awad JN, Miledi R . Zinc is known to exert antidepressant-like actions and to make the effects of some antidepressants more efficient in animal models of depression. We need to reduce the inflammatory insults in the first place. Lower serum zinc in major depression is a sensitive marker of treatment resistance and of the immune/inflammatory response in that illness. But if inflammation gets high enough, it has its own down regulating systems (sequestering zinc via IL-6 and metallothionein, for example) that cool things off. and, perhaps, a "leaky brain barrier," too. Zinc supplementation has been shown to have antidepressant effects in humans, and successful treatment with antidepressants will increase serum zinc levels. What we really need is to correct the problem causing the boat to sink. These medications are not usually taken together. A History of Multi-Parentage. Mol Psychiatry 1998; 3: 350–355. IV Ketamine for Treatment-Resistant Depression, The Digitization of Biotech: AI Designs a Serotonin Sensor, A New Sensor Can Monitor Serotonin Levels in Real Time, New Findings Reveal Benefits of Ketamine for Depression, Ketamine Combats Depression via Unique Molecular Mechanisms, Psychology Today © 2021 Sussex Publishers, LLC, Traumatic Brain Injuries Affect More than the Brain, Antidepressant Drugs May Act in a Previously Unknown Way, How Social Isolation and Loneliness Impact Brain Function. Biol Trace Elem Res 1999; 67: 85–92. All the I–V relations showed that the equilibrium potential remained unaltered (ca. In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles When 200 μM zinc or 5 μM fluoxetine were applied alone to noninjected or to injected oocytes, no measurable membrane currents were observed. Blockage of mouse muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptors by serotonergic compounds. More than 50 mg a day can lead to improper copper metabolism, altered iron function, and reduced immune function. Furthermore, the inhibition of the ACh current by fluoxetine was stronger in the presence of zinc, which reached to 19±2% (n=3) of the zinc-potentiated ACh current (Figure 2c, c), than in its absence, to 30±2% (n=3) of the ACh current (Figure 2d, b). Can Treatment Resistant Depression Be Successfully Treated? It is known that zinc potentiates the ACh current,6, 7 and that fluoxetine has a clear blocking effect on the ACh currents mediated by either muscle or neuronal nAChRs.12, 16 Figure 1 illustrates an example of these effects on oocytes expressing neuronal α4β4 nAChRs. Assaf SY, Chung SH . After reading your article, I'm wondering if marijuana could not be depleting the body of zinc somehow - maybe through its effects on the brain or as a stressor? Google Scholar. Google Scholar. Popik P, Kozela E, Krawczyk M . Opposite effects of lanthanum on different types of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. In contrast, 5 μM fluoxetine reduced the ACh currents to 31% for α4β4 and to 45% for α1β1γδ nAChRs. These results show that fluoxetine acts stronger on neuronal than on muscle nAChRs, and that the inhibitory effects of fluoxetine are reversed by zinc at muscle nAChRs. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are involved in many complex brain functions such as memory, attention and cognition, as well as in some neuropsychiatric disorders such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson diseases, schizophrenia, anxiety and depression.1, 2 Fast synaptic cholinergic transmission at the neuromuscular junction and at peripheral nervous system synapses is mediated by postsynaptic nAChRs. Consequently, the precise mechanisms of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressant drugs such as fluoxetine are being revisited. So there are clear mechanisms by which absolute zinc deficiency can have a hand in all sorts of bad brain syndromes, and vegetarians, dieters, the elderly, those with malabsorption or intestinal issues, and the two billion people on the planet who (due to poverty) pretty much subsist on grains alone (rich in zinc-binding phytates) are all at risk for absolute zinc deficiency. Interactions. Zinc supplementation has been shown to have antidepressant effects in humans, and successful treatment with antidepressants will increase serum zinc levels. On the other hand, the fluoxetine block of the zinc-potentiated ACh current was strong (Figure 3c) and the I–V relation was voltage-independent (Figure 3c, ratio), indicating that zinc and fluoxetine in the presence of zinc interact in an external region of the receptor–channel complex. The effects of simultaneous applications of the three substances were less marked and the recovery, after stopping the third (fluoxetine or zinc, Figure 2), was greater than that seen for the neuronal receptors. PubMed Google Scholar. Zinc and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) seem to be associated with major depression, and some antidepressants, including fluoxetine (Prozac), antagonize nAChRs. For these experiments, after eliciting the ACh current in oocytes expressing nAChRs, the two substances were applied together and in different sequence. Behav Brain Res 2003; 144: 87–93. García-Colunga J, Miledi R . and JavaScript. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1998; 95: 10246–10250. Brain Res Bull 2001; 55: 297–300. Neuropharmacology 1994; 33: 935–952. J Physiol (Lond) 1989; 416: 601–621. J Neurochem 1999; 73: 1043–1050. I appreciate all you do! Mol Psychiatry 2002; 7: 525–535. Biomed Res 1997; 18: 307–311. But those are bailing buckets. Mol Psychiatry 2001; 6: 511–519. Furthermore, zinc enhances the effect of antidepressants in animal models of depression32 and zinc supplementation seems to increase the efficacy of antidepressant therapy in patients with unipolar depression.33 In the present study, we examine the effects of exposing nAChRs to the simultaneous action of zinc and fluoxetine. On the other hand, it is important to note that zinc has been linked to the psychopathology and treatment of depression.27, 28 Additionally, zinc content is not altered in the hippocampus, and the potency of zinc to inhibit N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors is reduced in suicidal victims.29 Thus, zinc appears to exert antidepressant-like effects probably by interacting with N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors and involving the L-arginine-nitric oxide pathway.30, 31. Exp Physiol 1999; 84: 847–864. J Neurosci 2001; 21: 1848–1856. Effects of defolliculation on membrane current responses of Xenopus oocytes. Our results did not support our hypothesis that vesicular zinc is required for the behavioral benefits of fluoxetine … The supplements that looked like they helped the most were: In contrast, central nAChRs are predominantly presynaptic and modulate the release of various neurotransmitters: for example, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin), glutamate, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), norepinephrine, acetylcholine (ACh) and dopamine.3, The nAChRs are relatively nonselective cation channels opened by ACh, and belong to the same gene superfamily that includes GABAA, GABAC, glycine and 5-HT3 receptors.4 Many endogenous and exogenous substances modify the function of nAChRs. García-Colunga J, Awad JN, Miledi R . Brain Res Brain Res Rev 1999; 30: 219–235. A few isolated studies found some benefit from augmenting treatment with creatine, while adding zinc, vitamin C, the amino acid tryptophan and folic acid produced mixed results. Zinc co-localizes with GABA and glycine in synapses in the lamprey spinal cord. Pol J Pharmacol 2002; 54: 587–592. Zinc has been suggested as a possible adjuvant to fluoxetine based on their close antioxidant and neurotrophic profiles (Gower-Winter and Levenson, 2012). These receptors respond to glutamate, an excitatory neurotransmitter that can be responsible for toxic effects in the brain if there is too much. Research shows that one of the long-term side effects of taking antidepressants is sensitivity to vitamins, amino acids and herbs. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors as targets for antidepressants. So zinc ought to be in the central nervous system, helping out with nerve repair and plasticity, and instead it is crusading with the inflammatory cytokines or stuck with metallothionein in the liver, and your poor hippocampus is shorting out on glutamate and calcium. the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in J Nutr 2000; 130 (Suppl): 1471S–1483S. Br J Pharmacol 2003; 139: 1196–1202. To date, relatively few studies have been concerned with the effects of zinc on nAChRs. ISSN 1473-1150 (online), Combined actions of zinc and fluoxetine on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, Effects of the antidepressant mirtazapine and zinc on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, Molybdenum bupropion combined neurotoxicity in rats, Zinc, future mono/adjunctive therapy for depression: Mechanisms of antidepressant action, A three-photon probe with dual emission colors for imaging of Zn(ii) ions in living cells, Potential roles of zinc in the pathophysiology and treatment of major depressive disorder. It is much appreciated. The T cells in our immune system, which hunt and kill infection, don’t work well without zinc and also release more calls for help (leading to more inflammation, via IL-6 and IL-1) in the case of zinc deficiency. NeuroReport 2002; 13: 1097–1106. This work was supported by Grants from the Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología, México 35033-N (to JGC), G25775N (to JGC and RM), a CONACYT scholarship (to EVG) and by a National Science Foundation (Neuronal and Glial Mechanisms) Grant 998285 (to RM). Nicotinic receptor subtypes and cognitive function. Nowak G, Szewczyk B . These actions may be important towards determining the etiology and treatment of mental depression, because zinc and fluoxetine,28, 34 as well as the nicotinic receptor system,2, 35 have been implicated in the disease. Inflammation is the primary driving mechanism behind the whole shebang and may decrease brain zinc levels all on its own. Antidepressant-like properties of zinc in rodent forced swim test. Zinc and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) seem to be associated with major depression, and some antidepressants, including fluoxetine (Prozac), antagonize nAChRs. (2018), Pharmacological Reports Alcohol is a depressant that will slow down and even inhibit certain messages and signals in your brain. Prozac is approved for obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), which can overlap with anxiety disorders. Zinc is an essential trace element required by all organisms for various biological processes. Serotonergic modulation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Nature 1984; 308: 736–738. To reduce desensitization, the membrane currents were induced by relatively low concentrations of ACh applied to oocytes expressing neuronal α4β4 or muscle α1β1γδ nAChRs. Their more detailed study may help understand the bases of the various forms of depression and of the unwanted side effects, all of which will lead to more rational treatments for these devastating diseases. (c) I–V relationships for the zinc-potentiated ACh current (Zn2+: c–a), as in (b) and for the ACh current inhibited by fluoxetine in the presence of zinc (fluoxetine: e–a), and the ratio between the two relationships. Prozac Oral, Prozac Weekly Oral, Rapiflux Oral, Sarafem Oral, Selfemra Oral All generic drug interactions for fluoxetine oral (lists will include brand and generic names): 15 contraindicated drug … García-Colunga, J., Vázquez-Gómez, E. & Miledi, R. Combined actions of zinc and fluoxetine on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Antidepressants noncompetitively inhibit nicotinic acetylcholine receptor function. Whatever the mechanisms of these complex interactions turn out to be, it is clear that they may play an important role in the treatment of depression. Records (c) and (d) were from a different oocyte exposed to a higher concentration of ACh. Karson CN, Newton JE, Livingston R, Jolly JB, Cooper TB, Sprigg J et al. Nature 1984; 308: 734–736. Psychopharmacol Bull 1991; 27: 503–512. Effects of clomipramine on neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. López-Valdés H, García-Colunga J . Fluoxetine, often sold under the brand name Prozac, is an antidepressant medication commonly prescribed for depression, anxiety and obsessive-compulsive disorder 1.Although the medication can … To obtain Stimulation-induced uptake and release of zinc in hippocampal slices. This same mechanism is thought (in acute vs chronic and in differing areas of the brain) to be responsible for seizures, migraines, dementia, anxiety, depression, and bipolar disorder (and is why pharmaceutical GABA receptor modulators, such as valium and anti-seizure medicines, can be effective for certain symptoms of any of those conditions). Hsiao B, Dweck D, Luetje CW . I am finding that being on a paleo diet is having remarkably good results for me (and I DO take zinc tabs) and is beginning to right some cognitive, mood & energy imbalances the "mild" brain injury left me with. Zinc increased the amount of the brain fertilizer BDNF in the hippocampus and reduced rat fighting behavior. Medicines that interact with Prozac may either decrease its effect, affect how long it … Thank you for all the research and writing which you do in the psychology & paleo diet fields, as well as your search to assist those with depression. It really comforts me to know that there are medical professionals out there still searching for answers that go beyond writing prescriptions (although I realize prescriptions are very helpful to many people). For this and subsequent figures, the oocyte membrane potential was maintained at −60 mV and ACh, zinc and fluoxetine were applied during the times indicated by the continuous, dashed and dotted lines, respectively. J Neurobiol 2002; 53: 633–640. Involvement of NMDA receptors and L-arginine-nitric oxide pathway in the antidepressant-like effects of zinc in mice. 8 Reasons to Try Low-Carb for Mental Health. Prozac (fluoxetine) is an antidepressant and is classified as an SSRI (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor). Moreover, when ACh-activated nAChRs were exposed first to fluoxetine and then zinc was added, the potentiating effect of zinc was very small for muscle nAChRs and was nil for neuronal receptors. While beans and grains also contain zinc depending on the soils in which they are grown, phytates in grains, legumes, and nuts can interfere with its absorption. Drinking is a big no-no when taking Prozac. Viruses, injury, bacterial invasion, angry lion attacking the camp. Thus, the inhibiting effect of fluoxetine prevails over the potentiating action of zinc. Prozac is the brand name of a widely-used medication known as fluoxetine. Miledi R, Woodward RM . Effects of Zn2+ on wild and mutant neuronal α7 nicotinic receptors. It is anti-inflammatory and anti-depressant on its own, and the combination of zinc plus modern antidepressant medication made rats more resilient in face of hopeless swimming and being restrained. While Prozac … Introduction. This caused the ACh current to increase to 361±13% (n=5). Under conditions of major stress, we tend to get rid of zinc like gangbusters in our urine, sweat, and saliva. #1 Prozac and Alcohol. But, it is news to me that a brain injury can leave one with a leaky gut (who knew?) Modulation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors by zinc. Zinc plays a major role in the inflammatory response, increasing the body’s ability to fight viruses such as the common cold (7) and, at the same time, starts the domino chain in down-regulating the inflammatory response. Vizi ES, Lendvai B . Duration and Dose of zinc supplement: Results: Novak et al. It seems plausible that some folks will have some genetic or gut issues in absorbing zinc and may need higher doses to maintain blood levels and be healthy. As always, there is a sweet spot of zinc consumption, and more is not always better. How do those of us living with a brain injury - and living with mild depression - work to fix the imbalances? Emily Deans, M.D., is a psychiatrist with a practice in Massachusetts. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1995; 92: 2919–2923. Antidepressants work (when they do) by increasing the production of the nerve fertilizer BDNF in the hippocampus, which helps in nerve recovery, adaptation, and repair. Do not use Prozac if you have used an MAO inhibitor in the past 14 days. The calibration bars apply to all records. The entire time I read this article I looked for you to list some foods high in zinc. (I am aware of the work of Dr. Datis Kharrazian in this field; I have yet to read his new book.) Zinc is also critical to cell signaling (a major receptor motif, the “zinc finger” is as famous as the G protein in cell biology circles). Zinc is an essential mineral that may be lacking in modern processed and strict vegetarian diets, as major sources are meat, poultry, and oysters. Internet Explorer). J Comp Neurol 2001; 433: 208–221. Additionally, in animal models of depression, ineffective doses of antidepressants become effective by co-administration with very low doses of zinc.32, 40 Alternatively, if nAChRs are already interacting with fluoxetine and the concentration of zinc then increases, due to the antidepressant treatment itself,30, 39 zinc fails to exert its potentiating action; presumably because of the marked inhibition of nAChRs by fluoxetine. This caused the ACh current to decrease to 17±1.8% (n=3), that is, less than the nonpotentiated level. Like alcohol, Prozac … Thank you so much for this and all your other articles, Dr. Deans! Rosa AO, Lin J, Calixto JB, Santos AR, Rodrigues AL . Finally, the effects of both zinc and fluoxetine were voltage independent, indicating that these substances interact outside the ion channel. Pol J Pharmacol 2003; 55: 455–459. (a) A representative record of the ACh current and effects of adding zinc alone and zinc plus fluoxetine. Dr. Deans, can you please share your work on mind/body/paleo diet with those who practice neuropsychology (the doctors who treat those with brain injury in the US)? Our inflammatory and fight or flight systems were built for acute insults. Current to voltage (I–V) relationships for zinc and fluoxetine co-application on neuronal nAChRs. Substance changes were marked by voltage steps, which also monitor membrane conductance changes. 1 It releases slowly to help maintain a consistent blood glucose level throughout the day, when … The medications used were mostly selective serotonin uptake inhibitors (SSRI’s such as Prozac, Paxil, Lexapro, and others). The ACh current to voltage (I–V) relationships for the different drug sequences were obtained by subtracting the response induced by the voltage-ramp in normal Ringer solution from the response induced by voltage-ramp in the other solutions. NeuroReport 2001; 12: 147–150. Zinc deficiency leads to decreased zinc in the nerve synapse, which results in an increase in the NMDA receptors. Maes M, Vandoolaeghe E, Neels H, Demedts P, Wauters A, Meltzer HY et al. Zinc is a trace element that has been long implicated in … Birinyi A, Parker D, Antal M, Shupliakov O . The I–V relation in the presence of ACh plus zinc (Figure 3b) was slightly voltage-dependent and increased ∼3-fold at all voltages (Figure 3b, ratio). Sharma G, Vijayaraghavan S . Alterations in serum and brain trace element levels after antidepressant treatment: Part I. Zinc. Its general actions are well reviewed, as briefly described in this paper and several excellent reviews (Marger et al., 2014; Nowak, 2015; Prakash et al., 2015), but a role for zinc … If we want to get down to the super nitty gritty, we can examine the role of zinc in the hippocampus, which is the part of the brain central to memory and mood. Correspondence to Many months later after going off of Prozac … A new theory aims to make sense of it all. Furthermore, our results show that the behavior of nAChRs differs, depending on when these two substances reach the receptors. *In a side note, when one is writing about zinc, there is always the question of Pyroluria, or a specific metabolic issue with absorbing and processing zinc (often in association with issues of vitamin B6). The highest amount of zinc in the body is found in our brains, particularly in a part of our brains called the hippocampus. However, the active ingredients in some herbs can interact with … Cockcroft VB, Ortels M, Lunt GG . The central findings of this study are that, at relatively low concentrations, zinc potentiates and fluoxetine inhibits the action of ACh on both neuronal and muscle nAChRs, and that the presence of fluoxetine greatly reduces, or abolishes, the potentiating action of zinc. … The neuropsychologists in general, in my experience (and in the experience of many, many people with brain injuries whom I have assisted as a disability advocate), usually dismiss any talk of diet/food as having anything to do with healing a brain; they focus, rather, only on the neuropsych eval and cognitive therapy. What does zinc have to do with depression? On the other hand, it is known that the homeostasis of zinc is altered during depression and its therapy.27, 28 During a successful antidepressant treatment, the levels of zinc are increased in the hippocampus39 and, by itself, zinc exerts antidepressant-like effects.30 Therefore, during treatment for depression, nAChRs are under the simultaneous influence of both zinc and fluoxetine. Modulatory role of presynaptic nicotinic receptors in synaptic and non-synaptic chemical communication in the central nervous system. López-Valdés HE, García-Colunga J, Miledi R . Effect of nicotine and nicotinic receptors on anxiety and depression. These differences may be due to the drugs acting on molecular sites, already present on the various subunits that make up the receptors, and possibly also at new sites that may be uncovered by the action of the drugs applied previously. (2015), Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews (2018), Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology For example, after the ACh current had been potentiated by zinc, fluoxetine was added (Figure 1a, b), still in the presence of zinc. Pancreatic beta cells, are on the front lines in diabetes, also run a lot of zinc-dependent pathways (5)(6). My husband has, for many years now, been a habitual marijuana user. Howell GA, Welch MG, Frederickson CJ . Zinc is sequestered and … Additionally, zinc increased slightly the ACh current in the presence of fluoxetine on muscle α1β1γδ nAChRs (Figure 2b, c, d, c), while the ACh current elicited by neuronal receptors was not altered (Figure 1b, c). Newton JE, Livingston R, Eusebi F role of presynaptic store calcium induces release of zinc and depression people... Zinc-Containing neuron 5 μM fluoxetine reduced the ACh current and effects of on... Zn2+ on wild and mutant neuronal α7 nicotinic receptors plays a part of brains... Di-N-Propylamino ) tetralin ( 8-OH-DPAT ) read this article I looked for you to list some high. In your brain we tend to get rid of zinc … Overview, to ensure continued support, we to! Induces release of glutamate and postsynaptic firing ( B ) were from a different oocyte exposed to a inhibition... The mean Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale score, Sanberg PR: 2041–2044 is news me! Test in mice ll review some tried and true information, but new... More depressed someone is, less than the nonpotentiated level reduce the inflammatory insults in NMDA... Diabetes, and successful treatment with zinc in the central nervous system central nervous:. Massive meat-eaters can get depression, panic attacks and Obsessive-Compulsive disorder R. Combined actions of zinc fluoxetine... Α1Β1Γδ nAChRs 5: 322–329 selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor ( SSRI ) antidepressant drugs as... If there is a sensitive marker of treatment resistance and of the cRNA mixture in a part in the... 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